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How is Steel Made? An introduction to steelmaking.


Many of us have no conceptual understanding of what it takes to transform rocks in the ground to massive skyscrapers, extraplanetary space ships and just about everything that's important to our everyday lives. Definitionally, steel is an alloy primarily composed of iron and carbon, with small amounts of other elements added for specific properties. For this blog, we wanted to take it all the way back to our products beginnings. To start, here's a 7 minute video from our manufacturing partners at Nucor that will visually explain the steps that go into this incredible process.




Now that we've seen it in person, let's dive a little deeper into the ore to iron to steel to refined steel making process...



Raw materials collection:


Raw Iron Ore is seen here in its natural form.
Raw Iron Ore its natural form.

The main raw materials required for steelmaking are iron ore, coal, and limestone. Iron ore is mined and processed to extract iron, while coal is used as a source of carbon and to provide heat during the smelting process. Limestone is used as a flux to remove impurities during refining. The top iron ore producing countries are China, Australia and Brazil. The USA comes in at ten on the list of biggest producers.

A chart is shown displaying the top 20 iron ore producing countries on earth. China is first and Vietnam is 20th. Also included in the chart are the following countries, Australia, Brazil, India, Russia, South Africa, Iran, Ukraine, Canada, USA, Kazakhstan, Sweden, Mexico, Chile, Mauritania, Turkey, Peru Mongolia and Sierra Leone.
Top Iron Ore Producing Countries


Ironmaking:

Ironmaking is the initial step in the production of steel, wherein iron ore is processed in a blast furnace to extract molten iron. The process involves three primary raw materials: iron ore, coke (a high-carbon form of coal), and limestone. These materials are charged into the blast furnace, and intense heat generated by burning coke causes a chemical reaction with iron ore, leading to the reduction of iron oxide to produce molten iron and carbon monoxide gas. During this reduction process, impurities in the iron ore combine with limestone to form slag, which floats on top of the molten iron and can be removed. This produces crude iron, which is then further refined in the steelmaking process to obtain the desired steel composition by adjusting its carbon content and incorporating alloying elements to achieve specific properties.

a chart is shown explaining how a blast furnace creates iron from ore.
This is a simplified example of how a blast furnace creates iron from ore.




Steelmaking:

Steelmaking is the crucial stage where molten iron obtained from ironmaking is transformed into steel with specific properties. The most common method used is the basic oxygen steelmaking (BOS) process. In this process, the molten iron is transferred to a converter, and high-purity oxygen is blown through it. The oxygen reacts with impurities, primarily carbon, in the iron, resulting in the removal of excess carbon and other undesirable elements. Alloying elements can be added to achieve desired steel grades with specific characteristics. The steel is then further refined and temperature-controlled to ensure uniformity. Once the desired composition is achieved, the steel is cast into semi-finished products using continuous casting machines. These semi-finished products are then rolled and shaped into final forms such as sheets, bars, and wires through various processing techniques. The steel may undergo additional heat treatments and surface finishing processes for specific applications, and strict quality control measures are implemented throughout the steelmaking process to ensure the final product meets the required standards. Steelmaking plays a vital role in producing a wide range of steel grades suitable for various industries and applications, making it one of the most significant manufacturing processes in the modern world.

  • Blowing oxygen: High-purity oxygen is blown through the molten iron in the converter. The oxygen reacts with the impurities, primarily carbon, in the iron. This oxidation process removes excess carbon and other undesirable elements, such as silicon and manganese, converting them into gases. The carbon content is reduced to achieve the desired steel grade.


  • Alloying: If specific properties are required, alloying elements like chromium, nickel, manganese, or molybdenum may be added at this stage to impart the desired characteristics to the steel.


  • Refining and temperature control: The steel is then further refined to adjust its composition and temperature. The process involves stirring the molten metal to ensure uniformity and remove any remaining impurities.


  • Continuous casting: Once the steel meets the required specifications, it is cast into semi-finished products like billets, slabs, or blooms using a continuous casting machine. This process allows for the production of long continuous sections, which are later processed into various shapes and forms.


  • Rolling and finishing: The semi-finished products are then rolled into final shapes and sizes using various rolling mills and shaping processes. The steel can be transformed into sheets, bars, rods, wires, or other finished products, depending on the intended use.


  • Heat treatment and surface finishing: Some steels undergo additional heat treatment processes like annealing, quenching, and tempering to achieve specific mechanical properties. Additionally, the steel may undergo surface finishing processes such as galvanizing, painting, or coating for protection against corrosion.


  • Quality control and testing: Throughout the entire steelmaking process, strict quality control measures are employed to ensure that the final steel meets the required standards and specifications.


Here's a chart taking you from Ore to refined or manufactured steel product.
Here's a chart taking you from Ore to refined or manufactured steel product.

Steel production stands as a cornerstone of modern civilization, leaving an indelible mark on almost every facet of our lives. From the towering skyscrapers that shape our urban landscapes to the sturdy bridges that span great distances, steel is the backbone of our infrastructure and construction endeavors.


Moreover, our ability to traverse the world with ease owes much to the strength and reliability of steel, enabling safe and efficient transportation through automobiles, airplanes, ships, and railways. Beyond mobility, steel's role extends into the machinery and equipment that drive our industries, boosting productivity and fueling innovation.

The impact of steel extends to the energy sector, powering our plants, wind turbines, and oil rigs, as well as contributing to the safe distribution of electricity. It's not just industry; steel plays a significant part in our daily lives, from the food containers that preserve our sustenance to the appliances that ease our household chores.


Steelmaking also has implications in national defense and security, safeguarding nations with its resilient armor, vehicles, and infrastructure. Furthermore, its recyclability bolsters sustainability efforts, fostering eco-friendly practices and reducing waste.

As a driver of job creation and economic growth, the steel industry serves as a catalyst for progress in countries with thriving steel sectors, supporting both local communities and global advancement.


In essence, steel's versatility, strength, and sustainability make it an essential element of the modern world's progress and prosperity. As we forge ahead, the legacy of steel production will continue to shape the landscape of human achievement, ensuring a strong foundation for generations to come.

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